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 pin-tailed sandgrouse

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المساهمات : 218
تاريخ التسجيل : 15/07/2009

09082018
مُساهمةpin-tailed sandgrouse

pin-tailed sandgrouse


The pin-tailed sandgrouse (Pterocles alchata) is a medium large bird in the sandgrouse family.

The pin-tailed sandgrouse is a robust, medium-sized bird about 31 to 39 centimetres in length.
The general colouring is cryptic, a blend of barred and flecked olive green, brown, buff, yellow, grey and black. The underparts and the feathered legs are dull white.
The sexes are different and the male's plumage varies with the time of year. In the breeding season, the male has the crown, most of the neck, the back and under-wing coverts a yellowish-green colour with dull yellow spots in the shoulder region. The cheeks are also yellow with a narrow black line extending from the beak, through the eye to the nape of the neck. The irises are brown and the beak is slatey grey. There is a black patch on the throat immediately below the beak and below this, there is a broad, reddish-brown band round the breast, bordered by a thin black stripe above and below the band. The outer wing coverts are chestnut edged with black and white and the primaries are black with pale edges which gives both the leading and trailing edges of the wing the appearance of a black rim in flight. The rump and the tail are distinctly barred in black and brownish-yellow and the streamers on the central tail feathers are slate-grey. Outside the breeding season, all the upper parts, including the crown and cheeks, are barred in black and brownish-yellow and the throat loses its black patch, becoming whitish.

The female is generally similar to the male but the colours are duller. The cheeks and neck are golden-buff and lack the greenish tinge of the male. There is a black stripe running through the eye. The chin is white and there is an additional yellow-buff band across the breast with a broad black stripe above, another thinner one about a third of the way down and a further narrow black stripe at the base. The back and wings are grey, barred with black. The rump and the tail (which has shorter central feathers than the male) are similar in colouration to the male but have finer black barrings.

In flight, the pin-tailed sandgrouse can be identified by its bright, white underparts and under-wing coverts, and the long feathers in the centre part of its tail. It is usually silent when on the ground but in the air communicates with other birds with a frequently uttered, loud "kattar-kattar", a nasal "ga-ga-ga" and a low-pitched "gang gang".


Ecosystem and habitat
These pin-tailed sandgrouse species do not occur normally in forest. They inhabit various dry inland ecosystems. They inhabit semi-arid plains, fallow agricultural fields, arid treeless plains, semi-deserts, hot deserts, temperate grasslands, shrublands with sparse short shrubs, steppe, open grassland plains and dry mudflats.

Diet and feeding habits
The diet of these pin-tailed sandgrouse species is mostly wild seeds, especially of legumes. They also feed on grain, green shoots, flowers and leaves. They fly in large flocks to watering holes at dawn.

Reproduction and breeding habits
The breeding season of these pin-tailed sandgrouse species depends upon availability of feed. These sandgrouse species are monogamous and feeding flocks break into pairs. The nest is a ground scrape, which is usually unlined. Typically three eggs are laid. The male incubates in the night and the female incubates in the day. The eggs hatch in about 25 days and hatchlings are led to feed by both the parents.


Migration and movement patterns
These pin-tailed sandgrouse species are partially migratory birds. The breeding populations in Northwest Africa, Spain, Portugal, France, Middle East and parts of Afghanistan are sedentary or nomadic.

Arabic: القطاة الغطاطة
Azerbaijani: Ağqarın bağrıqara
Catalan: Ganga, Ganga eurasiàtica
Czech: Stepokur krásný
Danish: Spidshalet Sandhøne
German: Spießflughuhn
Greek: Βελονόουρη Περιστερόκοτα, Παρδαλός, Περιστερόκοτα
Greek (Cypriot): Παρδαλός
English: Large Pintail Sandgrouse, Large Pin-tailed Sandgrouse, Pintailed Sandgrouse, Pin-tailed Sandgrouse, White-bellied Sandgrouse
Spanish: Ganga, Ganga común, Ganga Ibérica
Spanish (Spain): Ganga Ibérica
Estonian: valgekõht-vuril
Basque: Ganga, Ganga azpizuria
Persian: باقرقره شکم‌سفید, باقرقره (کوکر) شکم‌سفید
Finnish: Jouhihietakyyhky
French: Ganga cata
Galician: Ganga
Hebrew: קטה חדת זנב, קטה חדת־זנב, קטה חדת-זנב
Hungarian: nyílfarkú pusztaityúk
Armenian: [Spitakapor Drlon ], Սպիտակափոր Դռլոն
Icelandic: Auðnaspjátra
Italian: Grandule, Grandule comune, Grandule mediterranea
Japanese: nodogurosakei, shiroharasakei
Japanese: シロハラサケイ, ノドグロサケイ
Georgian: თეთრმუცელა გვრიტჩიტა
Kazakh: Ақбауыр бұлдырық
Latin: Pterocles alchata, Pterocles alchata alchata, Tetrao Alchata
Lithuanian: Baltapilvė smiltvištė, Baltapilvė smilvištė
Latvian: garastes smilšvistiņa
Maltese: Ganga, Ganga ta' Spanja
Dutch: Witbuik zandhoen, Witbuikzandhoen
Norwegian: Hvitbuksandhøne
Polish: stepówka bialobrzucha, stepówka białobrzucha
Portuguese: cortiçol de barriga branca, Cortiçol-de-barriga-branca, Ganga
Portuguese (Portugal): Ganga
Russian: Belobryukhy Ryabok, Белобрюхий рябок, Рябок белобрюхий
Sindhi: ثبٹ ٹَ )ٽ ٽً (َ ٙپڈ ٴٕى ي
Slovak: Stepiar bielobruchý
Slovenian: biserna stepska kokoška, stepska kokoška
Serbian: Belotrba sadža
Swedish: Vitbukad flyghöna, Vitbukig flyghöna
Turkish: Kılkuyruk Bağırtlak, Kılkuyruk Başırtlak, Kıl-kuyruk Step Tavuğu, kylkuyruk bağyrtlak
Ukrainian: Білочеревий рябок, Рябок білочеревий
Chinese: 白腹沙鸡
Chinese (Traditional): 白腹沙雞



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